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Sports Assignment

Question

Describe the following for each major macronutrient category (protein, carbohydrates, fats):
role in energy production
role in performance
recommended types (for the generally healthy public)
types that are not recommended
foods that you would recommend within the macronutrient category and why
How does knowledge of macronutrients help you in your future training endeavors?

Answer

Contents

Introduction. 2

Proteins. 2

Carbohydrates. 2

Fats. 3

References. 4

Macronutrients

Introduction

Macronutrients are nutrients that supply energy or calories. Nutrients are substances that are necessary for growth. Given that ‘Macro’ denotes large, macronutrients are the nutrients required in large quantities. There are three types of macronutrients: protein, fats, and carbohydrates.

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Proteins

Proteins play several important roles in the body which include repair, growth, maintenance of tissues, and to some extent energy supply. They are broken down into amino acids (small pieces of protein) which are then used to develop new proteins with particular functions. In the shortage of fats and carbohydrates, proteins are broken down to yield energy. Moreover, they are essential for maximizing adaptations in performance, specifically by strength development.

As much as they are essential, their intake in terms of proportions is equally important. The recommended type of heart-healthy proteins range from white meat to plant proteins, while an example of non-heart healthy proteins is red meat. Examples of foods containing healthy proteins include white meat such as fish, poultry and poultry products, and cereals such as peas and beans (Poland, 2001). The knowledge of these foods will help me in my future efforts to adapt my level of performance to various training needs.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the sugars, fibers, and starch found in dairy products, vegetables, cereals, and fruits. They supply the body with glucose which generates energy for physical functions. The healthy and recommended source of carbohydrates includes whole grains, beans, vegetables, and fruits. The human body requires different types of carbohydrates to function properly although some of them may be unhealthy particularly when consumed in large quantities, for example, starchy and sugary foods (Simpson & Raubenheimer, 2009). This knowledge will help me determine total daily intake and consumption timing in order to achieve maximum effectiveness during an exercise program.

Fats

Fats are the natural greasy substances present in animal bodies deposited as a layer beneath the skin. They play a significant role in energy production. The fats in food are converted into fatty acids, which are then released into circulation before being taken in by cells (Holman, 1971). Excess ones are stored in fatty cells for later use, where they act as reserves for energy during strenuous performance. Recommended intakes for healthy individuals include unsaturated fats which can help reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. Saturated fats are not recommended because of their association with elevated health risks. Meat from fish is an excellent source of fatty acids (Poland, 2001). This knowledge will help me to monitor my fats intake in order to adapt effectively to the needs of different exercise training programs.

References

Holman, R. (1971). Progress in the chemistry of fats and other lipids. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.

Poland, D. (2001). Free energy distributions in proteins. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics45(4), 325-336.         

Simpson, S. & Raubenheimer, D. (2009). Macronutrient balance and lifespan. Aging1(10), 875-880.

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