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Sample Sociology Paper

Question

Class you are to write an essay on the topic : Is America Close to Being a Post-Racial Society? These will be 3 pages each (though they can and should be longer), give at least 4 other sources from any legitimate mainstream book, journal article, periodical, or newspaper (in that order of importance; email me if you are unsure of a source’s legitimacy). NO DICTIONARIES OR ENCYCLOPEDIAS, ESPECIALLY WIKIPEDIA, ARE ALLOWED!!! You must properly cite a source for anything that is not common knowledge, let alone if you quote from it (use the APA standard). The more sources and citations, the better your grade will be (for good social science opinions need facts to back them up). Please remember that bad grammar and punctuation will count against you. 
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Answer

Is America Close to Being a Post Racial Society?

Contents

Introduction. 2

Racial Discrimination. 2

A Post-Racial Society and what it means for America. 4

Conclusion. 5

References. 6

Introduction

A post-racial era implies a time when there is no bias, instances of unfair treatment or prejudice and discrimination on racial grounds. The theme of post-racial America was initially spoken of in the early 1970s and the term gained momentum when Barack Obama ran for the presidency in 2008 where a majority of Americans viewed him as new dawn into a post-racial era. Following his election into the presidency, scholars and critics had different views on what this meant to Americans and racism, for instance, Tom Brokaw, a News analyst at NBC pointed out that his election was a transition from the racist past that marked America’s history (Clayton & Welch, 2016). A post-racial society must be free from racism and its vices entirely and in its place integrity among other social virtues reign. This essay examines whether America is close to being free from racial prejudice and what it means for the country.

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Racial Discrimination

The racial past that is part of America’s history has deeply affected how people of different ethnicities interact (Carter, Skiba, Arredondo & Pollock, 2016). Slavery and separation largely influenced the social and political cultures of people giving rise to the term ‘minorities’ and it becomes somehow difficult to see beyond the skin color. Despite movements and awareness campaigns against racial prejudice, there still exists discrimination and unfair treatment. Racial discrimination encourages favoritism to a group of people in areas such as employment, law enforcement, educational institutions, housing and real estates, medical institutions among others.

Law enforcement is one of the sectors in America where discrimination prevails. The minorities youths, especially African Americans, are more prone to police brutality than the White. A number of researches have been done coming up with statistics that prove this notion. Even though it is worth noting that the number of cases has gone down, it is clear that it has not gone away completely. When it comes to imprisonment, the same is seen where more African Americans are incarcerated(Haney-Lopez, 2010). Several factorsresulted to this mass imprisonment of African Americans among them being population control. The neighborhood where the ‘blacks’ lived, commonly referred to as ghetto, was sprawling and this would mean they had to move places. Thus, as a way to keep them in their place, imprisonment was seen as a solution.

In the height of integration in America, education was one of the areas that enabled incorporating different ethnic groups into a community. The minorities benefitted especially from this strategy but recently, researches show that there has been a decline in thedesegregation process(Carter, Skiba, Arredondo & Pollock, 2016). There has been a new kind of schools termed as “apartheid schools” which has lacks white students. These schools get low funds and the staff, which means the quality of education attained, is less than what their peers in other schools are getting. In other areas, there are policies that favor Whites and middle-class populations in assigning students to schools that made the minority population vulnerable (McDermott, Frankenberg & Diem, 2014) and there is need to establish a common ground for all to curb favoritism. Consequently, translated into the job market, their white counterparts will be more marketable since they have been exposed to a wide range of courses and skills.

Politically, differences can arise like was the case of Barack Obama. When he was chosen into office, Donald Trump challenged whether he was actually born in Hawaii or in Kenya. The pressure was too much that State House correspondents had to produce documentation to prove his birth place which of course did not fully convince the challengers. There were constant questions about his governance, from the notion that being African American he was not fully accepted by some white people. Some of his decisions were challenged outright and others even taken to court, for instance Obamacare, even after being signed into law (Clayton & Welch, 2016). This affected his reputation as a president.

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A Post-Racial Society and what it means for America

Post racism is a liberal orientation in that it politicallyand socially favors reform and progress where it should not be bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy or tradition. The resulting impression is that a post racial era would not spring into existence overnight. The efforts that are being put in place to unite ethnic communities should be intensified, for example in colleges, students should be encouraged more to get involved in interracial interactions to build closeness (Neville, Poteat, Lewis &Spanierman, 2014). This would lower their misconceptions about racial ideologies as they interact hence building strong foundations for a future post racial society. In order to achieve a post racial society, it does not mean being pretentious about the different ethnic groups and races, but recognizing their existence and trying to bridge the inequalities as much as possible (Carter, Skiba, Arredondo & Pollock, 2016).

 Activities that boost integration and inhibits racial discrimination like sporting should be encouraged. Racial dominance in specific fields can also be done away with and allow any person to participate will help to achieve a post racial society. For instance, skiing has been largely associated with the whites, but there are organizations that are encouraging African Americans to participate in order to do away with race spatiality (Harrison, 2013). Art and music is also another sector that has been affected by racial spatiality, but this too can be regulated. All in all, America is striving to be post racial, but it has not reached there yet. Being a prominent nation globally, attaining post racial era would definitely act as a turnaround for the entire world.

Conclusion

Despite the constant appeal to end racism and racial discrimination, there exist stereotypes and assumptions that make it difficult for a nation to become a post-racial society. America is affected by these racist views when it tries to integrate communities, but since prejudice against race still exists, it does not make major leaps and the little that has been achieved can be undone (Amin, 2010), hence stereotypes and judgments should be addressed. Despite several movements to create awareness, the minorities still have not had a major breakthrough. The process is challenged politically (as seen in the case of President Obama) and socially (in institutions and law enforcement). Conclusively, this means that America is yet to be close to being a post-racial society; certainly, the process of getting there will be excruciatingly slow.

References

Amin, A. (2010). The Remainders of Race. Theory, Culture & Society, 27(1), 1-23.

Carter, P.L., Skiba, R., Arredondo, M.I. & Pollock, M. (2016). You Can’t Fix What You Don’t Look At:Acknowledging Race in Addressing Racial Discipline Disparities. Urban Education, 52(2), 207-235.

Clayton, D. & Welch, S. (2016). Post-racial America and the Presidency of Barack Obama. Endarch: Journal of Black Political Research,1(3), 2-37.

Haney-Lopez, I.F., (2010). Post-Racial Racism: Racial Stratification and Mass Incarceration in the Age of Obama. California Law Review, 98(3), 1024-1073.

Harrison, A.K. (2013).Black Skiing, Everyday Racism, and the Racial Spatiality of Whiteness. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 37(4), 315-339.

McDermott, K.A., Frankenberg, E. & Diem, S. (2014). The “Post-Racial” Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts. Educational Policy, 29(3), 504-554.

Neville, H.A., Poteat, V.P., Lewis, J.A. &Spanierman,L.B. (2014). Changes in White College Students’ Color-Blind Racial Ideology Over 4 Years: Do Diversity Experiences Make a Difference? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61(2), 179-190.

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