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Sample HRM Assignment

Question

1. Write the citation of the article using an acceptable style like the APA (American Psychological Association) MLA, Chicago, etc.

2. Summarize the articled focus on the following: ( Write an introduction paragraph that informs the reader that you intend to review an article or other document. Tell the reader the reason why you selected that particular article to review. The purpose of the introduction paragraph is to prepare the reader for what is to follow in your review.) 

3. Make an effort to cover the following points. It may require more than one paragraph to cover them.

o State the overall purpose of the article. What was the main theme of the article?
o What new ideas or information were communicated in the article?
o Why was it important to publish these ideas?

4. Give your impressions of the usefulness of the article. Give your reasons for your opinions. Write about your opinions of the strengths and weaknesses of the article in separate paragraphs.

o Critique, and evaluate 
In your opinion, what were the strengths and weaknesses of the article? Be sure to think about your impressions and the reasons for them. Listing what the author wrote as limitations is not the same thing as forming your own opinions and justifying them to the reader.
o Make an effort to go beyond commenting only about the organization and layout of the article.
o Were the findings important to a reader?
o Were the conclusions valid? Do you agree with the conclusions?

5. Write a conclusion paragraph that briefly informs the reader what you wrote about in your review and your overall findings. A conclusion paragraph provides intellectual closure for the reader. Don’t leave it out. There is some redundancy in a conclusion paragraph, but it still is essential to provide closure in a skillfully written review.

6. Carefully proofread your work before submitting it.

” related to the field of Human Resources Development”

Answer

Article Review: Increasing Career Self-Efficacy through Group Work with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

Contents

Introduction. 2

Purpose, Ideas and Themes in the Article. 2

Critique and Evaluation. 4

Strengths and Weaknesses. 6

Conclusion. 7

References. 8

Introduction

Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students (CLD) is a term used in recognition of the learning, educational and social needs of different types of students. These differences are categorized mainly into cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic elements. This paper is an analytical review of “Improving Self-efficacy through Group Work with culturally and Linguistic Diverse Students” by Michele Mitcham in conjunction with four other authors: Wendy-lou Greenidge, Jennifer Figliozzi, Michelle Bradham-Cousar, and Mary Ann Thompson. This analysis will look at the role of culture and language in education and careers. It will also address the advocacy and social role of professional school counselors (PSC) in improving the self-efficacy and career positioning of the most affected parties: non-white groups.

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Purpose, Ideas and Themes in the Article

This article serves as a great source of analysis of the development of careers barriers and imitations for non-white students even as early as elementary school. It was chosen for analysis because it indicates a sequential outline of the historical and present factors as well as the methods of empowering CLD students to venture into more diverse careers. This piece gives practical examples such as Black, Hispanic and Asian students, all of whom face different challenges and conditions in education.

The work begins by defining an achievement gap as the difference between the academic achievements of students from middle socio-economic status (SES) and those from low SES. However, it also notes that an achievement gap continues to exist between white and black students belonging to the same SES. The main theme of this piece involves calling to action professional school counselors to eliminate this gap through interventions and culturally competent approaches (Levine, 1992). This requires social justice and advocacy with the sole goal of improving the confidence and career wellness of minority groups.

Interestingly, increased diversity and rights for groups has pushed more minority groups into equal and accessible education (Mitcham, Cousar, Figliozzi, Greenidge & Thompson, 2012). In this respect, CLD students account for over 40% of the national student population (Social and Character Development Research Consortium, 2010). PSCs are regulated and required by the American School Counselors Association to identify the individual and group characteristics and focus on creating value for all.

According to this article, Back, Latino and Native American students are the most misunderstood and misrepresented groups in advanced classes. As an example, Black students are automatically believed to be of lower academic capability. This also translates to career expectations and measures of career preparations that tend to perpetuate these perceptions. According to the article, urban PSCs are suited to this new role of creating awareness for CLD students, the community and other white students on the accessibility and diversity of careers in a way that is not limited by culture. In truth, much of this discrimination and negligence stems from a lack of an understanding on the cultures as well as the still-prevalent racial and ethnic stereotypes.

Critique and Evaluation

This study provides an insightful explanation of new ideas on cultural competence, social awareness and self-efficacy especially as developed at the high school level. In particular, emphasis is the role of group work in career exploration and self-efficacy of the chosen careers (Fink, 1992). Initially, the school structure must actively transform the cultural awareness and competency of the school (Hollins, 1999). This will trickle down to the testing strategy and career development departments. The primary aim of this transformation is to develop individuals who have strong beliefs in their persona abilities to participate and get positive outcomes during a task (Luneneburg, 2011). Gottfredson’s theory, for example, reveals that while other majority cultures may lack an understanding of particular minority groups, they also have limiting perceptions on their own abilities and identities. In practice, the theory analyzes and draws links between an individual’s psychological factors and sociological influencers on the one hand and their career development on the other.

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In the article, a study of career trends shows more optimism for CLD students on more careers in elementary school and a falling optimism as they enter and complete high school. PSCs at the high school level have the biggest responsibility as reflected in the rising student-counselor gap and the widening achievement gap that portrays the need for more creativity in handling students’ needs more effectively. For this reason, interactive group sessions should be designed to include CLD and white students to avoid stigma and to promote mutual support (Mitcham, Cousar, Figliozzi, Thompson & Greenidge, 2012). They should also include the inclusion of compulsory ethnic studies in all curriculums.

The study also promotes the view that interventions for CLD students should be founded on the principle of trust and honesty. This ought to be followed by group or team-building among compact units that are used to develop career portfolios and identities. As outlined, the objectives of the four sessions of the scholars group include identifying diverse careers, developing career identities, determining strategies or steps towards the chosen career, and examining the barriers or obstacles to this goal. The authors suggest a four-week window period, after which students should be requested to compile portfolios of their career aspirations and make positive growth in their self-efficacy, further opening them up to more career opportunities. Finally, authors highly disregard the traditional tracking and deficit orientation programs which assume lines of automatic bias and neglect for CLD students. Their view is that these should be replaced by culture- and language-inclusive programs that do not take up a ‘white’ mentality (Mitcham et al., 2012).

Publishing these ideas is of extreme importance to the process of educational and ethnic reform in the US and throughout the world. Globalization has facilitated closer interactions between members of distinct cultures. This information is therefore of great contribution towards the transition from a rigid educational culture to a dynamic and inclusive system that is non-discriminatory. Furthermore, this article cites the problem and describes it in such a way that it is easy to outline a solution. The suggested solution is practical and applicable in most, if not all, learning institutions. It distributes responsibility between the school entity, the PSCs, the CLD students and the rest of the student community. Parents and other community members are also included in the solution for their role in support and promoting non-ethnic oriented interactions.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Firstly, this article assumes a very optimistic tone. Even though it clearly highlights the attitudes and discrimination against specific groups, much of it is dedicated towards expounding on the proposed solution. The solution strategy appears to be skillfully developed using actual reference, for example, Gottfreson’s theory. Because of this clear and straightforward tone, it is easy to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the article.

Its most profound strength arises from the positive language and sense of hope that it imparts especially on CLD students. The genuine hope that is provided is backed by proper execution that is explained in a simple way. Another strong aspect of the article is its inclusion of all stakeholders especially in terms of group work and advocacy. PSCs are further identified as ‘urban’, thereby allowing room for reinvention and redesign of their role in particular contexts. Since the article’s primary goal is to motivate and suggest ways in which school counselors can expand the career opportunities for CLD students, it provides a fresh start for counselors. At the same time, its authors acknowledge that the CLD community has a role to play especially towards shaping positive perceptions of their communities and their intellectual abilities. In this way, CLD groups can take charge of their rights and expand their horizons to redefine their potential and professional positions.

An evident area of profound weakness for this article, though, lies in its vagueness in its description of the government and social structures that have continuously led to low academic and career performance expectations for CLD groups. Therefore, the solution and ideas provided begin at the school level and completely undervalue the required transformation in the legal and political structures. Moreover, the authors have failed to tackle directly the present and new form of racism that has been said have emerged in today’s society. In its attempt to remain neutral, the article does not provide an authoritative tone or a decisive call-to-action approach to problem-solving. On the contrary, it appears to be a very targeted and level-specific, yet abstract almost to a fault.

Conclusion

This review has briefly described the article’s main points and themes to create a better understanding by an academic audience. Undoubtedly, it is an excellently written article that took up a simple structure, language and layout. These combined factors have made it enjoyable to read and to use as a basis for developing a personal opinion. The review has also commented on the themes and personal evaluation or critique of the article. As shown in this review, its strengths by far outweigh its strengths, and it can thus be used as a basis for the development of a sustainable solution to problems affecting culturally and linguistically diverse students in terms of social, education, and career development needs.

References

Fink, S. (1992). High Commitment Workplaces. New York, NY: Quorum Books.

Hollins, R. S. (1999). Racial and Ethnic Identity in School Practices: Aspects of Human Development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Levine, D. (1995). Reinventing the Workplace: How Business and Employees Can both Win. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Luneneburg, F. (2011). Self-Efficacy for the Workplace: Implications for Motivation and Performance. International Journal of Management, Business and Administration, 14(1), 39-65.

Mitcham, M., Cousar, M., Figliozzi, J., Greenidge, W. & Thompson, M  (2012). Increasing Career Self-Efficacy Through Group Work With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. Orange, CA: Argosy University.

Social and Character Development Research Consortium. (2010). Efficacy of School-wide Programs to Promote Social and Character Development and Reduce Problem Behavior in Elementary School Children: Report from the Social and Character Development Research Program. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

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