English Homework


please write a rhetorical Analysis on Michaela Cullington essay on Does Texting Affect Writing

this is the content that goes in the rhetorical analysis
1 what’s cullingtons thesis
2 what’s her purpose for writing this essay
3 who’s her audience
4 what voice is she using in her writing
5 organization
6 what examples does she give to support her thesis
7 give her details

please include
1 vocab variety
2 figurative language like metaphors and similes
3include ethos, logos, pathos, and kairos
4 also use sentence variety like compound sentences and compound complex etc.




Introduction. 1

Thesis. 1

Purpose of Writing the Essay. 1

Audience. 2

Voice and Tone. 2

Organization. 3

Examples to Support Thesis. 3

About the Author. 4



Texting has become a common means of communicating due to its convenience to both the sender and the receiver and the personal ownership of cell phones. However, it has been criticized as a hindrance to effective communication especially among the youth. This argument is based on observation that the texting language is often characterized by abbreviations and shortened forms of words. Michaela’s essay suggests that texting does not in fact directly affect proper grammar and communication in formal and educational writing.


Purpose of Writing the Essay

The essay follows on an investigation that Michaela carried out to prove her thesis and belief that texting does not negatively reflect in student writing as suggested by most educational practitioners. The reasons given include the lack of punctuation, capitalization and the use of emotions in texting which may be detected in student writing. Those in support of texting hail it as a means of fast and convenient communication that enables one to develop social skills and the ability to express oneself in confidence, clarity and creativity.

Michaela’s research sets out to obtain practical perspectives from students and teachers. She goes ahead to examine pieces of writing by students on a wide variety of topics to evaluate the extent of texting-related language in student writing.


The intended audience ranges from texting critics, supporters, students and teachers. This choice portrays desirable use of kairos since the topic is relevant for this audience. The public is familiar with texting, and concerns about its impact on writing abound. Moreover, the public is also an extended audience for her essay since the debate on texting, furthered by social media, technology and the internet has gained global focus. Meanwhile, the educational sector and its participants constitute her main audience and subjects of research.

Voice and Tone

The essay adopts a very descriptive and systematic approach emphasized by the voice and tone used. This approach enhances credibility, thus utilizing the aspect of ethos effectively. She puts across her findings and approach in a non-invasive and non-forceful voice.  She clearly states both sides of the argument before announcing the side of the debate she belongs. This move is then followed by a definitive and firm voice as she summarized her findings on her research.

Moreover, the friendly voice and tone used is very inviting and stimulates a reader evaluate the issue more, thus addressing the issue of pathos or emotions. In other words, it elicits emotional responses that are appropriate for the emergence of a thoughtful discussion on the issue. She uses a voice that allows a reader to evaluate her personal opinion while still formulating their own views. Her writing skills exude fluency, figurative speech and a wide vocabulary that makes her essay a successful literary piece that sufficiently expresses her intended message.


The writing is concisely and systematically organized in a format that builds on the main theme of texting, the subjects and the facilitating factors. This way, it projects a strong aspect of logos, such that ideas are logically presented and conclusions logically follow from the premises provided. Moreover, the essay briefly explains the reasons for and against texting and their relation to student writing. Those in support of texting describe it as a faster means of effective communication as opposed to a replacement for formal and proper communication. Parties against texting describe it as an inhibitor to proper grammar and speech etiquette in formal communication scenarios.


 She then categorically explains her research methods and subsequent results before making a conclusion based on her findings and reasoning. Her conclusion is that as a texting enthusiast herself, she does not fall victim to the supposed effects of texting such as poor oral communication and improper formal writing. In her opinion, texting is an efficient tool that fosters fast and convenient communication.

Examples to Support Thesis

The student samples which she personally reads and evaluates demonstrate no effect or instances of texting language such as abbreviations. She explains that students know when to draw the line between formal and informal writing and ensure that there is no cross-over between them.

Secondly, her interviews with students and teachers reveal that the two parties hold completely different views on texting. Contrary to common beliefs, students rarely use shortened versions of words and over-complicated abbreviations, some of which are regarded as immature in texting. Furthermore, they are capable of drawing a line between formal and informal communication and will rarely use informal language in their school writing. Therefore, teacher’s views on the effects of texting among young people are portrayed as a far-fetched illusion developed around the established negativity surrounding texting among this demographic group.

About the Author

Michaela Cullington was a student at Marywood University in Pennsylvania when she conducted this research and summarized it in an essay. She received her master’s degree in speech and language pathology in 2014. Her essay was originally published in an undergraduate journal by the University of Missouri in Kansas. These credentials render a strong sense of credibility, thus promoting the aspect of ethos.

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