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Introduction to the overall team paper. 2

Outcome-based assessment in relation to weight reduction to reduce or prevent T2DM… 3

References. 4

Introduction to the overall team paper

Various studies on T2DM were assessed in this team paper. Both classifications of epidemiological studies (experimental and observational) were represented in this analysis. It was noted that experimental studies are a relatively new approach of seeking T2DM interventions since no such study existed prior to 2004. Meanwhile, when Grey et al. (2004) did such a study, the outcome was that T2DM is closely linked with increased rates of obesity among American Youth. Similar findings were released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) and the National Institute of Health in 2008.


Researches done by Center for Disease Control (CDC), National Institute of Health (NIH) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) using the experimental strategy pioneered by Grey in 2004, all indicate that out of the target population of 186,000 itemized by groups and targeting youth under the age of 20, one in every 400 individuals was diagnosed with diabetes.

Caravalho and Saylor’s (2000) quasi-experimental study entailed use of a comprehensive diabetes care model aimed at improving self-management. The model was initiated by a team comprising a nurse care manager, educational and counseling professionals and a multidisciplinary clinic team through the initiatory efforts of an HMO (healthcare maintenance and counseling organization).

Observational studies, as it was indicated in the team paper, ought to be carried out within the framework provided by the American Medical Association (AMA) at the century of the 21st century, meta-analyses are extremely important in order for variables surveyed in different studies to be studied accurately. One of the examples of an observational study highlighted in this team paper is one done to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and T2DM risk factors.

Outcome-based assessment in relation to weight reduction to reduce or prevent T2DM

            The epidemiology research analysis has far-reaching financial and economic implications, especially through weight-reduction measures and programs should be put in place so as to reduce 2DM prevalence rates from increasing among children. There are many costs to be incurred both at the preventive and at the curative level in order for the disease to be put under control.

            The cost of putting in place exercise programs that are sustainable and effective is very high, especially when such programs are meant for use by many children. However, this is merely a tip of the iceberg; the very role of losing weight entails a change of lifestyle, engagement in strenuous physical activity and disease intervention. All these measures except the last one are best done within a teamwork environment. Fitness and healthcare facilities need to be spacious enough to enable people to train in groups. The cost of hiring instructors should also be considered to have far-reaching economic implications since such professionals in most cases require to be employed on a permanent basis.

Educating a young population on how to maintain the best fitness routines for a whole year is a big challenge in terms of finances both to the individual families concerned and federal health authorities (Bonita et al, 2006). Prevention ofT2DM, according to the research, also entails a change of nutrition (Grey et al, 2004). A transformation in diet practices comes with many financial adjustments that may be unplanned for, making them difficult not only to budget for but also to implement.

Children who are at a high risk of suffering from T2DM need more than a change in nutrition and physical. They require to be inducted into intervention programs in order to reduce the risk factors associated with this disease. These interventions come at a financial cost. According to the National Institute of Health, the best strategies for the treatment of T2DM are very expensive for low-income earners to afford, yet the form a sizeable majority of the high-risk population. In 2007 the American Diabetic Association released data showing that diabetes was the seventh most devastating disease in several ailments: kidney failure, hypertension, blindness, amputation, nervous system failure, and death. Treating the 170 million T2DM sufferers during 2007 alone came at a high financial cost to the country. Obese children according to Caravalho and Saylor (2000) require assistance in order to succeed in self-management efforts, one of the measures proven to reduce morbidity and mortality due to diabetes through research. The cost of such kind of assistance, though seemingly modest compared to other T2DM intervention costs, requires to be factored both at the national healthcare level and individual level budgeting processes.


Hughes and Reilly (2008) believe that obesity among children in the U.S has become an epidemic. Dealing with all epidemics is never an easy thing to do in terms of logistics, planning, and prevalence study reviews (Fleming, 2008). The management processes have to entail additional costs over and above all other normal treatment costs that the government incurs. Hughes & Reilly, (2008) observe that intervention measures for this pandemic have progressed at a slow pace because of logistical and financial underpinnings that the country is still in the process of straightening up. The healthcare provisions changes that once effected will translate into increased medical costs include algorithm-directed care, employment of midlevel healthcare providers and installation of electronic recording systems.


Bonita, R., Beaglehole, R., & Kjellstrom, T. (2006). Basic Epidemiology (2nd ed.). World Health

Caravalho, J. Y. & Saylor, C. (2000). Continuum of care. An evaluation of a nurse case-managed program for children with diabetes. Pediatric Nursing, 26(3), 296. Retrieved March 11, 2010, from Central Alabama Veterans Health Care System, EBSCOhost database.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Childhood overweight and obesity. Retrieved January 7, 2008, from

Fleming, S. T. (2008). Managerial Epidemiology: Concepts and cases. (2nd ed.). Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Grey, M., Berry, D., Davidson, M., Galasso, P., Gustafson, E., & Melkus, G. (2004). Preliminary testing of a program to prevent type 2 diabetes among high-risk youth. The Journal of School Health, 74(1), 10-15. Retrieved March 11, 2010, from ProQuest database.

Hughes, A. R. & Reilly, J. J. (2008). Disease management programs targeting obesity in children. Setting the scene for wellness in the future. Disease Management & Health outcome, 16(4), 255-266. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Central Alabama Veterans Health care System, Health Business database.

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