AnnotatedBibliography: Motivation and Psychology


-the annotated bibliography is written (see attached). Write it to make it to ensure it’s perfect, phd-level work. -check the grammar and syntax -Ensure all sources are written in APA style -the annotated bibliography is about motivation and psychology, the history and definition of these concepts. It examines works of psychology to explore how these concepts have been discussed/defined.   Note:   1. please do not include the reference information in the word count (the paper needs to be 130 words above the standard 2-pg wordcount of 550 words to account for the bibliographical information appearing inside the body text). 2. In case you want to read the sources further to gather more information to add to teh annotated bibliography, feel free to do so. I can provide copies of teh articles in case you’re unable to locate them on the internet.



Andrew, E., J. (2014)

This article deliberates on motivation history and new advances made in the study of   this concept. Motivation can be defined as a source of energy, direction of behavior, as well as the “why” and “how” of human actions. According to the author, motivational ideas and concepts have been in scholarly thoughts for a century. Efforts to theorize on motivational aspects of psychology using an empirical approach may be traced to the work of Wundt and Williamsin 1890 (Andrew, 2014). This article is an important scholarly reference in this field as it succinctly describes the history and definition of motivation, explains how motivation affects the concept behavior, and summarizes and links motivation to ideas of further theoretical and empirical development.


Kooij, D., De Lange, A., Jansen, P. &Dikkers, J. (2008)

This study is a conceptual paper in which the authors discuss the motivation for older workers to continue servingin the labor market as well as their intention to keep going despite their age. It reports on twenty four empirical and nine theoreticalstudies about age-related influences having a negative effect on motivation. The authors further stipulate that human resources departments often play a pivotal role in motivating the older workers. The study also to effectively identifies areas of interest inresearch such as theoretical focus on the age-related process and the need for more empirical studies on age-related variables and their effect on motivation.

Thakur, D. R. (2010)

This review presents an investigation into the importance of organizational culture and what itencompasses for new employees. Organizational culture consists of belief, values, and norms that are shared by employees and members of the organization .The author also elaborates onthe importance of older workers to the organization in relation to the transfer of culture to new hires. Older employees are described as a medium between the organization and new employees. This article will be important as it will assist in demonstrating the importance of the older worker and the methods that can be used for organizations’ continued utilization of their experiences.

Kay, A. C., & Jost, J. T. (2014)

            Kay and Jost(2014) present a multiplicity of reasons as to why motivational scientists attain sincere theoretical and empirical integration. Social-scientific concepts have gained a lot of traction in the existential and relational foundations of attitudes and behavior. There are many programs in research processes that have assisted in enlightening the structure and purpose of human needs and how they motivate their actions.  This article discusses how motivational scientists are achieving honest theoretical and empirical integration. It particularly elaborates on systemjustification theory and how it explains non-conscious goal pursuit and the ways in which goal-related conflicts emerge. Kay and Jost proceed to discuss the relationship between human needs and behavior. This article will be helpful in setting both short- and long-term goals in terms of efforts to motivate older employees.

Smith, A. D., & Rupp, W. T. (2003). Knowledge workers: Exploring the link among performance rating, pay and motivational aspects. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 107-124.  

Smith and Rupp (2003) postulate that contemporary performance appraisal is restricted to three areas: development, motivation and recognition of achievement. It promotesthe view that essentially, the purpose of performance appraisals is to evaluate individual meritand offer rewards based on that, although the increasingly dominant practice in this day and age is to offer higher rewards even with lower performance appraisal scores. The above article is important because it argues out the concept of how older workers can be motivated as employees of the organization to enable them to overcome feeling of being alienated.Smith and Rupp’s work will assist with strategy building that can help motivate the older employees to continue working as an invaluable tool and enabler of success in organizations.


Andrew, E., J., (2014). Advances in Science, vol. (1), 11-25

Kay, A. C., & Jost, J. T. (2014). Theoretical integration in motivational science: System justification as one of many “autonomous motivational structures”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences37(02), 146-147.

Kooij, D., de Lange, A., Jansen, P., & Dikkers, J. (2008). Older workers’ motivation to continue to work: Five meanings of age: A conceptual review. Journal of managerial psychology23(4), 364-394.

Smith, A. D., & Rupp, W. T. (2003). Knowledge workers: exploring the link among performance rating, pay and motivational aspects. Journal of Knowledge Management7(1), 107-124.

Thakur, D. R. (2010). Role of old employees in organizational culture delivery to new employees. Management Prudence1(2), 7-12.

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