Annotated Bibliography



Annotations are descriptive and critical assessments of literature that help researchers to evaluate texts and determine relevancy in relation to a particular research project. Ultimately, they are a note-taking tool that fosters critical thinking, demonstrates understanding, and evaluates the source material for possible later use. In this assignment, you will read and annotate three articles.

General Requirements:
•Locate the articles by Baker and Pifer (2011), Gardner (2009), and Smith and Hatmaker (2014) in the Course Materials for this topic.
•This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
•Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. Review the GCU APA Style Guide for Writing located in the Student Success Center. Note: A title page is required for this assignment, but a reference page is not required since the references are included with the annotations.
•Refer to the resource, “Preparing Annotated Bibliographies” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style. Use “Sample APA Annotated Bibliography” example in this resource.
•You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.


Read the articles by Baker & Pifer (2011), Gardner (2009), and Smith & Hatmaker (2014). These articles and the persistent links to them are located in the Course Materials for Topic 2.   Here are the full articles details: Baker, V.L.; &Pifer,M.J.(2001). The role of relationships in the transaction from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17.doi:10.1080/0158037X.2010.515569   Gardner, S.K. (2009). Conceptualizing success in doctoral education: Perspectives of facility in seven disciplines. The Review of higher Education, 32(3), 383-406 . doi:10.1352/rhe.0.0075   Smith, A. E., &Hatmaker, D.M. (2014), Knowing, doing, and becoming : Professional identify construction among public affairs doctoral students. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 20(4). 545-546.

Provide an annotated bibliography (900-950 words total, excluding the reference notes) of the articles. Including the following for each article:

1.A reference note formatted according to APA style guidelines. The reference note is not included in the total word count.
2.An annotation (250-300 words) of the article. Annotations are descriptive and critical assessments of peer reviewed articles. Annotations summarize the key concepts and evaluate the article for its strengths and weaknesses. Why was the study conducted? What was the population studied? What did the researcher(s) conclude? What other information about this study do you believe is unique or important to recall? Are there specific statements made by the author you wish to retain?

Include: Title Page
If you are unable to locate the articles, just contact me and I’ll fwardthem 



Baker, V.L.; &Pifer,M.J.(2001).

The article Vicki L. Baker and Meghan J. Pifer focuses on the transition of doctoral students from theory work to dissertation stage. According to the authors, the dissertation stage (stage 2) is a very important aspect of doctoral studies because it marks the transition of the student from dependence to independence. In the stage one of the doctoral studies, the students are guided through the theoretical process by their professors and tutors. At this stage, they are required to complete their coursework and then pass their candidacy examinations. The stage is considered dependent because the learners rely on their instructors to provide a percentage of the coursework, which they internalize and apply in the examinations (Lovitts, 2008).  The second stage is considered independent because the learners are now required to apply the knowledge learned to conduct a dissertation. The goal of the researchers was to provide more information on the ways in which the students adapt to the critical transition by looking at the function of relationships in the process of identity development. The researchers conducted the study by investigating 31 doctoral students at Valley University. The interviewing method was utilized as an instrument for collecting data that was used to establish the role of relationships. The study established that relationships and interactions have an effect on the strategies and experiences that are related to the stage 2 of doctoral studies. Students develop identity while transitioning to the independent stage of their doctoral studies. The article is important because it provides highlights on student transition from dependence to independence.


Gardner, S.K. (2009)

            The article by Susan K. Gardner, attempts to conceptualize the meaning of the term “success” in higher education. According to the Gardner (2009), success has been used to describe multiple outcomes, variables, and practices with regards to higher education. In doctoral studies, the number of students who complete the studies is estimated to be at 50 percent. It is therefore important to examine the meaning of success with regards to the doctoral studies. The author, therefore, conducted investigations on the meaning of success in doctoral studies by exploring the meanings given by faculty advisors in seven different disciplines (Gardner, 2009). The findings of the study were used to highlight the varied cultures between different faculties depending on their low or high completion rates. How the faculties organized themselves determined how they conceptualized success. There were faculties that saw success as arising from the ability to work hard while other defined success by the need for self-direction. Success was also conceptualized as the ability of a learner to secure a good job after the completion of their doctoral study. Due to the complexity of some disciplines, there were some faculties that viewed the completion of the doctoral studies as a success. Such departments included the computer and mathematics departments that had low completion rates. The study is important because it provides various conceptualizations of success in different faculties. Success in doctoral studies is based on the cultural perspectives of the different faculties as well as institutions. While there are some faculties that peg their definition of success on working hard, there are others that view success as the need for self-direction.

Smith, A. E., &Hatmaker, D.M. (2014)

            The article by Amy E. Smith and Deneen M. Hatmaker examines the construction processes of socialization and professional identity among doctoral students who are conducting their research in public affairs. According to the researchers, the process of professional socialization entails the development of skills and acquisition of knowledge that is linked with being a member of a professional organization. Newcomers in an institution often undergo the process to become accustomed with the culture of the organization. In this regard, they typically endeavor to execute proactive behaviors that they associate with the profession. Professional identity, on the other hand, concerns the endurance of a constellation of attributes that include values, motives, beliefs, and experiences that are used to define a professional role (Mendoza, 2010). The process of creating an identity and socialization in the doctoral perspective involves the process through which students undergo learning to become independent researchers. For instance, doctoral students often employ certain tactics such as emulation of role models and positioning in order to both construct their idiosyncratic identity and obtain faculty support. Smith &Hatmaker(2014) interviewed participants who were taking part in a workshop in which the topic of discussion was professional development. The results of the study indicated that the students appreciated the role of mentoring and relationships in preparing them for the independent role of conducting research. The research is important because it helps in highlighting the importance of professional development and mentoring in creating values that promote independence in conducting research. The study emphasizes the importance of professional relationships in doctoral students to aid them in developing identity hence successfully conducting their research. According to the authors, these relationships can be propagated through required professional development seminars, faculty mentorships in the form of informal developmental relationships, and programs that provide opportunities for professional development.


Baker, V.L.; &Pifer,M.J.(2001). The role of relationships in the transaction from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17.doi:10.1080/0158037X.2010.515569

Gardner, S.K. (2009). Conceptualizing success in doctoral education: Perspectives of facility in seven disciplines. The Review of Higher Education, 32(3), 383-406. doi:10.1352/rhe.0.0075

Lovitts, B. E. (2008). The transition to independent research: Who makes it, who doesn’t, and why. The Journal of Higher Education79(3), 296-325.

Mendoza, P. (2010). Academic capitalism: A new landscape for doctoral socialization. On becoming a scholar: Socialization and Development in Doctoral Education, 113-133.

Smith, A. E., &Hatmaker, D.M. (2014), Knowing, Doing, and Becoming: Professional Identify Construction among Public Affairs Doctoral Students. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 20(4). 545-546.

Get a 10% discount on an order above $50